In this life, interactions occur with each other. The interaction shows that every creature needs each other. Humans interact with other humans, animals, and plants. This process and connection scheme is known as symbiosis.
In life, there are many symbioses that occur in humans, animals and plants. There are at least three types of symbiosis that characterize the interactions of creatures in life. What’s that? Mutualism symbiosis, commensalism symbiosis, and also parasitism symbiosis.
Curious to understand the meaning and differences of these three symbioses? Here’s an explanation:
- Mutualism symbiosis
The first is Symbiosis Mutualism. Where the relationship between two different types of organisms is mutually beneficial.
This relationship is considered a very positive relationship because both parties benefit. In other words, both parties reap benefits or profits from the interactions that are carried out.
Take the example of butterflies and flowers. Butterflies suck nectar from flowers, thus the flowers also get help from the movement of butterflies for the pollination process to occur.
Another example of symbiotic mutualism is between humans and bacteria. E. Coli bacteria in humans can work to reduce the growth of bad bacteria and accelerate the process of decay in the large intestine. The advantage obtained by E. Coli bacteria is that they get food from the remains of the large intestine.
- Commensalism symbiosis
Commensalism symbiosis is an interaction between two living things that only benefits one organism, while the other organism is not harmed and does not benefit (neutral).
Take a simple example that happened to Remora fish and sharks. After the shark eats, usually the leftovers will fall. When the food scraps fall, the Remora fish will stick with the shark to take the leftovers from the shark. Sharks are neither harmed nor benefited.
Another example can be observed in the interaction between orchids and mango trees. Orchids benefit because they have a place to grow, and get sunlight, water, and substances for photosynthesis, by attaching to the mango tree. While the mango tree is not harmed in any way.
- Parasitism symbiosis
This last symbiosis is interesting and often disliked, aka has a negative tendency. The reason is, parasitism, and symbiosis is the opposite of mutualism symbiosis.
Parasitism symbiosis is a condition of dependence that occurs when one party benefits, but harms the other party. Or in other words, there is one party who is sacrificed or harmed.
Take for example this symbiosis that occurs in mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes benefit by sucking blood from humans, while humans are disadvantaged because they can contract dangerous diseases.
Another example can be observed in flies with fruit. Flies get food from fruit and can breed in fruit. Fruit that flies land on loses money because it will rot.
Yes, so those were the three types of symbiosis that occur in life. All three provide important lessons for humans about how the best symbiosis is one that does not harm either party. May be useful!